10 Waste management
Status of the sector, development trends and implications
Waste generation is related to population, affluence and urbanization. Current global rates of post-consumer waste generation are estimated to be 900-1300 Mt/yr. Rates have been increasing in recent years, especially in developing countries with rapid population growth, economic growth and urbanization. In highly developed countries, a current goal is to decouple waste generation from economic driving forces such as GDP — recent trends suggest that per capita rates of post-consumer waste generation may be peaking as a result of recycling, re-use, waste minimization, and other initiatives (medium agreement, medium evidence) [10.1, 10.2].
Post-consumer waste is a small contributor to global GHG emissions (<5%), with landfill CH4 accounting for >50% of current emissions. Secondary sources of emissions are wastewater CH4 and N2O; in addition, minor emissions of CO2 result from incineration of waste containing fossil carbon. In general, there are large uncertainties with respect to quantification of direct emissions, indirect emissions and mitigation potentials for the waste sector, which could be reduced by consistent and coordinated data collection and analysis at the national level. There are currently no inventory methods for annual quantification of GHG emissions from waste transport, nor for annual emissions of fluorinated gases from post-consumer waste (high agreement, much evidence) [10.3].
It is important to emphasize that post-consumer waste constitutes a significant renewable energy resource that can be exploited through thermal processes (incineration and industrial co-combustion), landfill gas utilization and use of anaerobic digester biogas. Waste has an economic advantage in comparison to many biomass resources because it is regularly collected at public expense. The energy content of waste can be most efficiently exploited using thermal processes: during combustion, energy is obtained directly from biomass (paper products, wood, natural textiles, food) and from fossil carbon sources (plastics, synthetic textiles). Assuming an average heating value of 9 GJ/t, global waste contains >8 EJ of available energy, which could increase to 13 EJ (nearly 2% of primary energy demand) in 2030 (medium agreement, medium evidence) [10.1]. Currently, more than 130 million tonnes/yr of waste are combusted worldwide, which is equivalent to >1 EJ/yr. The recovery of landfill CH4 as a source of renewable energy was commercialized more than 30 years ago with a current energy value of >0.2 EJ/yr. Along with thermal processes, landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas can provide important local sources of supplemental energy (high agreement, much evidence) [10.1, 10.3].
Because of landfill gas recovery and complementary measures (increased recycling and decreased landfilling through the implementation of alternative technologies), emissions of CH4 from landfills in developed countries have been largely stabilized. Choices for mature, large-scale waste management technologies to avoid or reduce GHG emissions compared with landfilling include incineration for waste-to-energy and biological processes such as composting or mechanical-biological treatment (MBT). However, in developing countries, landfill CH4 emissions are increasing as more controlled (anaerobic) landfilling practices are being implemented. This is especially true for rapidly urbanizing areas where engineered landfills provide a more environmentally acceptable waste-disposal strategy than open dumpsites by reducing disease vectors, toxic odours, uncontrolled combustion and pollutant emissions to air, water and soil. Paradoxically, higher GHG emissions occur as the aerobic production of CO2 (by burning and aerobic decomposition) is shifted to anaerobic production of CH4. To a large extent, this is the same transition to sanitary landfilling that occurred in many developed countries during 1950–1970. The increased CH4 emissions can be mitigated by accelerating the introduction of engineered gas recovery, aided by Kyoto mechanisms such as CDM and Joint Implementation (JI). As of late October 2006, landfill gas recovery projects accounted for 12% of the average annual Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) under CDM. In addition, alternative waste management strategies such as recycling and composting can be implemented in developing countries. Composting can provide an affordable, sustainable alternative to engineered landfills, especially where more labour-intensive, lower-technology strategies are applied to selected biodegradable waste streams (high agreement, medium evidence) [10.3].
Recycling, re-use and waste minimization initiatives, both public and private, are indirectly reducing GHG emissions by decreasing the mass of waste requiring disposal. Depending on regulations, policies, markets, economic priorities and local constraints, developed countries are implementing increasingly higher recycling rates to conserve resources, offset fossil fuel use, and avoid GHG generation. Quantification of global recycling rates is not currently possible because of varying baselines and definitions; however, local reductions of >50% have been achieved. Recycling could be expanded practically in many countries to achieve additional reductions. In developing countries, waste scavenging and informal recycling are common practices. Through various diversion and small-scale recycling activities, those who make their living from decentralized waste management can significantly reduce the mass of waste that requires more centralized solutions. Studies indicate that low-technology recycling activities can also generate significant employment through creative microfinance and other small-scale investments. The challenge is to provide safer, healthier working conditions than currently experienced by waste scavengers at uncontrolled dumpsites (medium agreement, medium evidence) [10.3].
For wastewater, only about 60% of the global population has sanitation coverage (sewerage). For wastewater treatment, almost 90% of the population in developed countries but less than 30% in developing countries has improved sanitation (including sewerage and waste water treatment, septic tanks, or latrines). In addition to GHG mitigation, improved sanitation and wastewater management provide a wide range of health and environmental co-benefits (high agreement, much evidence) [10.2, 10.3].
With respect to both waste and wastewater management in developing countries, two key constraints to sustainable development are the lack of financial resources and the selection of appropriate and truly sustainable technologies for a particular setting. It is a significant and costly challenge to implementing waste and wastewater collection, transport, recycling, treatment and residuals management in many developing countries. However, the implementation of sustainable waste and wastewater infrastructure yields multiple co-benefits to assist with the implementation of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) via improved public health, conservation of water resources, and reduction of untreated discharges to air, surface water, groundwater, soils and coastal zones (high agreement, much evidence) [10.4].