IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change

Chapter 11: Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Technological options for cross-sectoral mitigation: description and characterization

11.2.1 Cross-sectoral technological options

11.2.2 Ocean fertilization and other geo-engineering options

11.3 Overall mitigation potential and costs, including portfolio analysis and cross-sectoral modelling

11.3.1 Integrated summary of sectoral emission potentials

11.3.2 Comparing bottom-up and top-down sectoral potentials for 2030

11.3.3 Studies of interactions between energy supply and demand

11.3.4 Regional cross-sectoral effects of greenhouse gas mitigation policies to 2025

11.3.5 Portfolio analysis of mitigation options

11.4 Macro-economic effects

11.4.1 Measures of economic costs

11.4.2 Policy analysis of the effects of the Kyoto Protocol

11.4.3 National and regional studies of responses to mitigation policies

11.4.4 Post-Kyoto studies

11.4.5 Differences between models

11.5 Technology and the costs of mitigation

11.5.1 Endogenous and exogenous technological development and diffusion

11.5.2 Effects of modelling sectoral technologies on estimated mitigation costs

11.5.3 The costs of mitigation with and without endogenous technological change

11.5.4 Modelling policies that induce technological change

11.6 From medium-term to long-term mitigation costs and potentials

11.6.1 Structural trends in the transition

11.6.2 Carbon prices by 2030 and after in global stabilization studies

11.6.3 Price levels required for deep mid-century emission reductions: the wider evidence

11.6.4 Complementary measures for deep emission reductions

11.6.5 Capital stock and inertia determinants of transitions in the second quarter of the century

11.6.6 Investment and incentive stability

11.6.7 Some generic features of long-term national studies

11.7 International spillover effects

11.7.1 The nature and importance of spillover

11.7.2 Carbon leakage

11.7.3 Spillover impact on sustainable development via the Kyoto mechanisms and compensation

11.7.4 Impact of mitigation action on competitiveness (trade, investment, labour, sector structure)

11.7.5 Effect of mitigation on energy prices

11.7.6 Technological spillover

11.8 Synergies and trade-offs with other policy areas

11.8.1 Interaction between GHG mitigation and air pollution control

11.8.2 Impacts of GHG mitigation on employment

11.8.3 Impacts of GHG mitigation on energy security

11.8.4 Summary

11.9 Mitigation and adaptation - synergies and trade-offs

11.9.1 Sectoral mitigation action: links to climate change and adaptation


Appendix to Chapter 11

Coordinating Lead Authors:

Terry Barker (UK) and Igor Bashmakov (Russia)

Lead Authors:

Awwad Alharthi (Saudi Arabia), Markus Amann (Austria), Luis Cifuentes (Chile), John Drexhage (Canada), Maosheng Duan (China), Ottmar Edenhofer (Germany), Brian Flannery (USA), Michael Grubb (UK), Monique Hoogwijk (Netherlands), Francis I. Ibitoye (Nigeria), Catrinus J. Jepma (Netherlands), William A. Pizer (USA), Kenji Yamaji (Japan)

Contributing Authors:

Shimon Awerbuch = (USA), Lenny Bernstein (USA), Andre Faaij (Netherlands), Hitoshi Hayami (Japan), Tom Heggedal (Norway), Snorre Kverndokk (Norway), John Latham (UK), Axel Michaelowa (Germany), David Popp (USA), Peter Read (New Zealand), Stefan P. Schleicher (Austria), Mike Smith (UK), Ferenc Toth (Hungary)

Review Editors:

David Hawkins (USA), Aviel Verbruggen (Belgium)

This chapter should be cited as:

Barker, T., I. Bashmakov, A. Alharthi, M. Amann, L. Cifuentes, J. Drexhage, M. Duan, O. Edenhofer, B. Flannery, M. Grubb, M. Hoogwijk, F. I. Ibitoye, C. J. Jepma, W.A. Pizer, K. Yamaji, 2007: Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.