9.1.2 New advances and approaches used in the Fourth Assessment Report
Recent scientific efforts, including a focus on both an impacts-led approach as well as a vulnerability-led approach (see Adger et al., 2004, for a summary), have enabled a more detailed assessment of the interacting roles of climate and a range of other factors driving change in Africa. This approach has been used to frame much of what follows in this chapter and has enabled a greater sensitivity to, and a deeper understanding of, the role of ‘multiple stresses’ in heightening vulnerability to climate stress. Several of these stresses (outlined in Sections 9.2.1, 9.2.2 and 9.4) are likely to be compounded by climate change and climate variability in the future. Recent additional case studies on adaptation have also been undertaken, providing new insights (see Section 9.5, Table 9.2).