2.5 Anthropogenic Changes in Surface Albedo and the Surface Energy Budget
Anthropogenic changes to the physical properties of the land surface can perturb the climate, both by exerting an RF and by modifying other processes such as the fluxes of latent and sensible heat and the transfer of momentum from the atmosphere. In addition to contributing to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations and aerosol loading, anthropogenic changes in the large-scale character of the vegetation covering the landscape (‘land cover’) can affect physical properties such as surface albedo. The albedo of agricultural land can be very different from that of a natural landscape, especially if the latter is forest. The albedo of forested land is generally lower than that of open land because the greater leaf area of a forest canopy and multiple reflections within the canopy result in a higher fraction of incident radiation being absorbed. Changes in surface albedo induce an RF by perturbing the shortwave radiation budget (Ramaswamy et al., 2001). The effect is particularly accentuated when snow is present, because open land can become entirely snow-covered and hence highly reflective, while trees can remain exposed above the snow (Betts, 2000). Even a snow-covered canopy exhibits a relatively low albedo as a result of multiple reflections within the canopy (Harding and Pomeroy, 1996). Surface albedo change may therefore provide the dominant influence of mid- and high-latitude land cover change on climate (Betts, 2001; Bounoua et al., 2002). The TAR cited two estimates of RF due to the change in albedo resulting from anthropogenic land cover change relative to potential natural vegetation (PNV), –0.4 W m–2 and –0.2 W m–2, and assumed that the RF relative to 1750 was half of that relative to PNV, so gave a central estimate of the RF due to surface albedo change of –0.2 W m–2 ± 0.2 W m–2.
Surface albedo can also be modified by the settling of anthropogenic aerosols on the ground, especially in the case of BC on snow (Hansen and Nazarenko, 2004). This mechanism may be considered an RF mechanism because diagnostic calculations may be performed under the strict definition of RF (see Sections 2.2 and 2.8). This mechanism was not discussed in the TAR.
Land cover change can also affect other physical properties such as surface emissivity, the fluxes of moisture through evaporation and transpiration, the ratio of latent to sensible heat fluxes (the Bowen ratio) and the aerodynamic roughness, which exerts frictional drag on the atmosphere and also affects turbulent transfer of heat and moisture. All these processes can affect the air temperature near the ground, and also modify humidity, precipitation and wind speed. Direct human perturbations to the water cycle, such as irrigation, can affect surface moisture fluxes and hence the surface energy balance. Changes in vegetation cover can affect the production of dust, which then exerts an RF. Changes in certain gases, particularly CO2 and ozone, can also exert an additional influence on climate by affecting the Bowen ratio, through plant responses that affect transpiration. These processes are discussed in detail in Section 7.2. While such processes will act as anthropogenic perturbations to the climate system (Pielke et al., 2002) and will fall at least partly within the ‘forcing’ component of the forcing-feedback-response conceptual model, it is difficult to unequivocally quantify the pure forcing component as distinct from feedbacks and responses. The term ‘non-radiative forcing’ has been proposed (Jacob et al., 2005) and this report adopts the similar term ‘non-initial radiative effect’, but no quantitative metric separating forcing from feedback and response has yet been implemented for climatic perturbation processes that do not act directly on the radiation budget (see Section 2.2).
Energy consumption by human activities, such as heating buildings, powering electrical appliances and fuel combustion by vehicles, can directly release heat into the environment. This was not discussed in the TAR. Anthropogenic heat release is not an RF, in that it does not directly perturb the radiation budget; the mechanisms are not well identified and so it is here referred to as a non-initial radiative effect. It can, however, be quantified as a direct input of energy to the system in terms of W m–2.