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See emissions cap.
Costs associated with capital or investment expenditure on land, plant, equipment,
and inventories. Unlike labour and operating costs, capital costs are independent
of the level of output for a given capacity of production.
In the context of climate change, capacity building is a process
of developing the technical skills and institutional capability in developing
countries and Economies in transition to enable them to participate
in all aspects of adaptation to, mitigation of,
and research on climate change, and the implementation of the Kyoto Mechanisms,
The term used to describe the flow of carbon in various forms (e.g., as carbon
dioxide) through the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and lithosphere.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
A naturally occurring gas, and also a by-product of burning fossil fuels
and biomass, as well as land-use changes and other
industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas
that affects the earths radiative balance. It is the reference gas against
which other greenhouse gases are measured and therefore has a Global Warming
Potential of 1.
Carbon dioxide fertilization
The enhancement of the growth of plants as a result of increased atmospheric
carbon dioxide concentration. Depending on their mechanism of photosynthesis,
certain types of plants are more sensitive to changes in atmospheric carbon
dioxide concentration. In particular, plants that produce a three-carbon compound
(C3) during photosynthesis; including most trees and agricultural
crops such as rice, wheat, soybeans, potatoes and vegetables, generally show
a larger response than plants that produce a four-carbon compound (C4)
during photosynthesis; mainly of tropical origin, including grasses and the
agriculturally important crops maize, sugar cane, millet and sorghum.
See emissions tax.
See Clean Development Mechanism.
See certified emission reduction.
Certified emission reduction (CER)
Equal to 1 tonne (metric ton) of CO2-equivalent emissions
reduced or sequestered through a Clean Development Mechanism project,
calculated using Global Warming Potentials. See also emissions
Greenhouse gases covered under the 1987 Montreal Protocol and
used for refrigeration, air conditioning, packaging, insulation, solvents, or
aerosol propellants. Since they are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere, CFCs
drift into the upper atmosphere where, given suitable conditions, they break
down ozone. These gases are being replaced by other compounds,
including hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons, which
are greenhouse gases covered under the Kyoto Protocol.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
Defined in Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development
Mechanism is intended to meet two objectives: (1) to assist Parties not included
in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate
objective of the convention; and (2) to assist Parties included in Annex I in
achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction
commitments. Certified emission reductions from Clean Development
Mechanism projects undertaken in non-Annex I countries that limit
or reduce greenhouse gas emissions, when certified by operational
entities designated by Conference of the Parties/Meeting of the Parties,
can be accrued to the investor (government or industry) from Parties in Annex
B. A share of the proceeds from the certified project activities is
used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country
Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate
change to meet the costs of adaptation.
Climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the
mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended
period (typically decades or longer). Climate change may result from natural
internal processes or external forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes
in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. Note that
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in its
Article 1, defines climate change as a change of climate which
is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition
of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability
observed over comparable time periods. United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change thus makes a distinction between climate change
attributable to human activities altering the atmospheric composition, and climate
variability attributable to natural causes.
See United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
See carbon dioxide.
The concentration of carbon dioxide that would cause the same
amount of radiative forcing as the given mixture of carbon dioxide
and other greenhouse gases.
The benefits of policies that are implemented for various reasons at the same
time including climate change mitigation acknowledging
that most policies designed to address greenhouse gas mitigation
also have other, often at least equally important, rationales (e.g., related
to objectives of development, sustainability, and equity). The term co-impact
is also used in a more generic sense to cover both the positive and negative
side of the benefits. See also ancillary benefits.
The use of waste heat from electric generation, such as exhaust from gas
turbines, for either industrial purposes or district heating.
Sequence of actions necessary to achieve market entry and general market competitiveness
of new technologies, processes, and products.
Conference of the Parties (CoP)
The supreme body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change, comprising countries that have ratified or acceded to the Framework
Convention on Climate Change. The first session of the Conference of the
Parties (CoP-1) was held in Berlin in 1995, followed by CoP-2 in Geneva
1996, CoP-3 in Kyoto 1997, CoP-4 in Buenos Aires, CoP-5 in Bonn, and CoP-6 in
The Hague. See also CoP/MoP and Meeting of the Parties.
A measure of the value of consumption beyond the price paid for
a good or service.
See Conference of the Parties.
The Conference of the Parties of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change will serve as the Meeting
of the Parties (MoP) the supreme body of the Kyoto Protocol,
but only Parties to the Kyoto Protocol may participate in deliberations and
make decisions. Until the Protocol enters into force, MoP cannot
A criterion that specifies that a technology or measure delivers
a good or service at equal or lower cost than current practice, or the least-cost
alternative for the achievement of a given target.
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