The Regional Impacts of Climate Change

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Annex G: Acronyms, Chemical Symbols, and Units

3-D 3-dimensional
ACCS African Climate Change Scenario
ADB Asian Development Bank
aET actual evapotranspiration
AIM Asian-Pacific Integrated Model
AOGCM atmosphere-ocean general circulation model
AUS Australia
BBS Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
BCTE Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics (Australia)
BMRC Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (Australia)
BNJST Bangladesh-Nepal Joint Study Team
BP before present
BRS Bureau of Resource Sciences
CAP Common Agricultural Policy
CAST Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
CCC Canadian Climate Centre
CCIRG Climate Change Impacts Review Group
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CDEA Commission on Development and Environment for Amazonia
CERES Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System
CNA Central North America
COP Conference of the Parties
CPUE catch-per-unit-effort
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
CZMP coastal zone management plan
DENR Department of Environment and Natural Resources
DEST Department of Environment, Sport and Territories (Australia)
DGVM dynamic global vegetation model
DHF dengue hemorrhagic fever
DH-MWR Department of Hydrology, Ministry of Water Resources (China)
DJF winter (December-January-February)-Northern Hemisphere
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DOC dissolved organic carbon
DTR diurnal temperature range
EAS East Asia
ECHAM European Centre/Hamburg Model
ECSN European Climate Support Network
EEZ exclusive economic zone
EN El Nio
ENSO El Nio-Southern Oscillation
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESD-CAS Earth Science Division, Chinese Academy of SciencesEU
EU European Union
EWS early-warning system
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FAR First Assessment Report
FASOM Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model
FCCC Framework Convention on Climate Change
FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency (United States)
FSU former Soviet Union
GCM general circulation model
GDP gross domestic product
GEF Global Environment Facility
GEO Global Environment Outlook
GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
GHG greenhouse gas
GIS Geographic Information Systems
GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies
GLASOD Global Assessment of Soil Degradation
GLOF glacial lake outburst flood
GLSLB Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin Project
GNP gross national produc
GOB Government of Bangladesh
GOI Government of India
GTZ Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (Germany)
GVA Global Vulnerability Analysis
GVM global vegetation model
GYC general yield class
HEWS health early warning systems
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HMGN His Majesty's Government of Nepal
HSSW high-salinity shelf water
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
ICLARM International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management
ICST Ivorian Country Study Team
ICZM integrated coastal zone management
IDRC International Development Research Centre
IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
IMAGE Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IQQM Integrated Quantity and Quality Model
IRC Insurance Research Council
IRRI International Rice Research Institute
ISPAN Irrigation Support Project for Asia and the Near-East
ITCZ Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
JJA summer (June-July-August)-Northern Hemisphere
LAI leaf area index
LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
LPG liquefied petroleum gas
MAPSS Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System
MARA/ARMA Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa
MBIS Mackenzie Basin Impact Study
MERCOSUR Mercado Comn del Sur/Common Market of the South
MOPT Ministerio de Obras Publicas y Transportes (Spain)
MPI Max-Planck Institut fr Meteorologie (Germany)
MRI Meteorological Research Institute (Japan)
NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standard (United States)
NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research (United States)
NEU Nothern Europe
NGO non-governmental organization
NRC National Research Council (United States)
NSW New South Wales
NWR National Wildlife Refuge
NWT NorthWest Territories
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OIES Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies
ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)
OSU Oregon State University
OTA Office of Technology Assessment (United States)
P precipitation
PAA Port Autonome d'Abidjan
PAHO Pan American Health Organization
PAN peroxyacetal nitrate
PCCC Proyecto Centroamericano de Cambios Climticos
PCSD The President's Council on Sustainable Development
PE potential evaporation
PEI precipitation effectiveness index
pET potential evapotranspiration
P:PET precipitation:potential evapotranspiration
PPP purchasing power parity
Pr precipitation
PV photovoltaic
PWWS Philadelphia Hot Weather-Health Watch/Warning System
R runoff
RCM regional climate model
RMA Resource Management Act (New Zealand)
RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SACZ South Atlantic Convergence Zone
SADC Southern African Development Community
SAH Sahel
SAR Second Assessment Report
SARDC Southern African Research and Documentation Center
SBSTA Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
SEA South East Asia
SEU Southern Europe
SO Southern Oscillation
SOI Southern Oscillation Index
SPCZ South Pacific Convergence Zone
SPREP South Pacific Regional Environment Programme
SSA sub-Saharan Africa
SST sea-surface temperature
T temperature
TAR Third Assessment Report
Tmax daily maximum temperature
TMF tropical moist forest
Tmin daily minimum temperature
UKMO United Kingdom Meteorological Office
UN United Nations
UNEP UN Environment Programme
UNESCO UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
USCSP U.S. Country Studies Program
USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture
USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
UV-B ultraviolet-B
VBD vector-borne disease
VEMAP Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project
WFC UN World Food Council
WG Working Group
WHO World Health Organization
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WRI World Resources Institute
WSC Weddell Scotia Confluence
WUE water-use efficiency



C carbon
CH4 methane
CO2 carbon dioxide
H2 molecular hydrogen
N nitrogen
NOx nitrogen oxide
N2O nitrous oxide



SI (Systme Internationale) Units

Physical Quantity Name of Unit Symbol

length meter m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
thermodynamic temperature kelvin k
amount of substance mole mol


Fraction Prefix Symbol Multiple Prefix Symbol

10-1 deci d 10 deca da
10-2 centi c 102 hecto h
10-3 milli m 103 kilo k
10-6 micro 106 mega M
10-9 nano n 109 giga G
10-12 pico p 1012 tera T
10-15 femto f 1015 peta P
10-18 atto a 1018 exa E


Special Names and Symbols for Certain SI-Derived Units

Physical Quantity Name of SI Unit Symbol for SI Unit Definition of Unit

force newton N kg m s-2
pressure pascal Pa kg m-1 s-2 (= Nm-2)
energy joule J kg m2 s-2
power watt W kg m2 s-3 (= Js-1)
frequency hertz Hz s-1 (cycle per second)


Decimal Fractions and Multiples of SI Units Having Special Names

Physical Quantity Name of SI Unit Symbol for SI Unit Definition of Unit

length ngstrom 10-10 m = 10-8cm
length micrometer m 10-6m = m
area hectare ha 104 m2
force dyne dyn 10-5 N
pressure bar bar 105 N m-2
pressure millibar mb 1hPa
weight ton t 103 kg


Non-SI Units

C degrees Celsius (0C = ~273K); Temperature differences are also given in C rather than the more correct form of "Celsius degrees"
Btu British Thermal Unit
kWh kilowatt-hour
MWe megawatts of electricity
ppmv parts per million (106) by volume
ppbv parts per billion (109) by volume
pptv parts per trillion (1012) by volume
tce tons of coal equivalent
toe tons of oil equivalent
tWh terawatt-hour


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